The Security Council is one of the main bodies of the UN, and also its most powerful one. Its extensive mandate includes maintaining international peace and security, and since 1945, the SC has passed more than 2200 resolutions responding to global crises.
In order to achieve its aim, the SC has been given considerable powers to intervene: it can take military action against aggressors, and its resolutions are legally binding for member states, which is unparalleled by other UN bodies. Apart from that, the SC also recommends new member states and the new Secretary General to the General Assembly.
The Security Council consists of 15 members, five of whom are permanent (People´s Republic of China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States of America) and ten are elected by the General Assembly for terms of two years. Permanent members hold special rights including the right to veto submitted draft resolutions. This makes finding compromises even harder because permanent members are guided by own security interests, too.
For Model United Nations like the OLMUN this means that representing a country in the Security Council is a task of great responsibility. Apart from advanced debating experiences also negotiation skills are inevitable. This year´s topic will be announced shortly before the conference starts.
More information can be found on http://www.un.org/en/sc/